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IT .NET FULL STACK DEVELOPER INTERVIEW QUESTIONS

   

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1)    Tell me about yourself

a) I am Rahul Parashar.

b) Currently I am working with Mercer.

 I have 2 experiences in .Net technology also have experience on SQL Server, JavaScript, CSS, Html, JQuery, and knowledge about knockout JS.

 

2)       Which Projects you Worked

a)      I have worked with two projects, CAI and GSC

b)      CAI, it is developed in angular, web API and SQL server, this project is used to give details about application inventory data.

c)       GSC, it is developed in asp.net and SQL server, this is used to manage application inventory

d)      I worked on every module of these projects.


 

 

Module 1:

1) What is HTML?

HTML stands for HyperText Markup Language. It is a language of the World Wide Web. It is a standard text formatting language that is used to create and display pages on the Web. It makes the text more interactive and dynamic. It can turn text into images, tables, and links.

 

2) What is CSS?

CSS stands for Cascading Style Sheet. It is a popular styling language which is used with HTML to design websites. It can also be used with any XML documents including plain XML, SVG, and XUL

 

3) What is AJAX?

AJAX stands for Asynchronous JavaScript and XML. It is a group of related technologies used to display data asynchronously. In other words, it sends and retrieves data without reloading the web page. More details.

 

4) What is JavaScript?

JavaScript is a scripting language. It is different from Java language. It is object-based, lightweight, cross-platform translated language. It is widely used for client-side validation. The JavaScript Translator (embedded in the browser) is responsible for translating the JavaScript code for the web browser.

 

5) What is jQuery?

JQuery is a fast, lightweight, feature-rich client-side JavaScript library. It is cross-platform and supports different types of browsers. It has provided a much-needed boost to JavaScript. Before jQuery, JavaScript codes were lengthy and bigger, even for smaller functions. It makes a website more interactive and attractive

 

6) What is JSON?

 

JSON is a simple data exchange format.  JSON means JavaScript Object Notation; it is language and platform independent.

 

 

7) What is Knockout JS?

Knockout JS is a JavaScript library based on the MVVM (Model View View Model) pattern that helps developers building rich and responsive websites. It is a small, lightweight JavaScript library that is mostly used to design and develop a SPA (Single Page Application). It assists rapid development in the browser, especially where ViewModels and arrays are involved.

 

8) What is .NET?

.NET is a framework for software development. It is just like other software development framework like (J2EE). It provides runtime capabilities and a rich set of pre-built functionality in the form of class library and API's. This .NET framework is an environment to build, deploy and run web services and other applications.

 

What is ADO.NET?

ADO.NET stands for ActiveX Data Objects. It is a major component of the .NET framework. It is designed to connect with different databases like SQL, MySQL, Oracle, and MS Access, etc.


9) What is C#?

 

C# is a simple, modern, general purpose programming language. It is an object oriented programming language developed by Microsoft. It is a safe and managed language that is compiled by .NET framework to generate Microsoft intermediate language (machine code).

 

10) What is API?

 

ASP.NET Web API is a framework for building HTTP services that can be accessed from any client including browsers and mobile devices. It is an ideal platform for building RESTful applications on the .NET Framework.

 

HTTP verbs

GET

POST

PUT

DELETE

 

 

What is MVC (Model View Controller)?

 

Model–view–controller (MVC) is a software architectural pattern for implementing user interfaces. It divides a given software application into three interconnected parts, so as to separate internal representation of information from the way that information is presented to or accepted from the user.

MODAL

VIEW

CONTROLLER

 

12) What is SQL Server?

The relational database management system (RDBMS) is a Microsoft software product mainly used to store and retrieve data for the same or other applications. We can run these applications on the same computer or a different one.

Join: it’s used for getting data from more than one table`1        z on the basis of condition

Types of Join

1)    Inner Join

2)    Outer join

A) Left Outer Join

b) Right Outer Join

c) Full Outer Join

3) Self Join

 


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https://www.javatpoint.com/oops-interview-questions

 

OOPs Interview Questions

Object-oriented programming (OOPs) is a programming methodology that is based on the concept of objects rather than just functions and procedures. It is the most popular methodology among developers.

The OOP has the following four features:

  • Inheritance
  • Encapsulation
  • Polymorphism
  • Abstraction

 

 

 

 

 

 

Polymorphism

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Difference between Abstraction and Encapsulation

 



 Module 2)

 

 https://www.interviewbit.com/dot-net-interview-questions/

 

What is NET FRAMEWORK?

.NET framework is developed by Microsoft which provides an environment to run, debug and deploy code onto web services and applications by using tools and functionalities like libraries, classes, and APIs. It supports different languages like C#, Cobol, VB, Perl, etc.

 

Main components of .NET framework

CLR

 

What is CTS?

CTS stands for Common Type System. It follows a set of structured rules according to which a data type should be declared and used in the program code. It is used to describe all the data types that are going to be used in the application.

We can create our own classes and functions by following the rules in the CTS. It helps in calling the data type declared in one programming language by other programming languages.

2. Explain CLS

Common Language Specification (CLS) helps the application developers to use the components that are inter-language compatible with certain rules that come with CLS. It also helps in reusing the code among all of the .NET-compatible languages.

3. What is JIT?

JIT stands for Just In Time. It is a compiler that converts the intermediate code into the native language during the execution.

 

What is boxing and unboxing in .NET?

Boxing is the process of converting a value type into a reference type directly. Boxing is implicit.

Unboxing is the process where reference type is converted back into a value type. Unboxing is explicit.

An example is given below to demonstrate boxing and unboxing operations:

int a = 10;      // a value type

object o = a;     // boxing

int b = (int)o;   // unboxing

 

 

What is a garbage collector?

Garbage collector is a background process which checks for unused objects in the application and cleans them up.

There are 3 generations gen 0 , gen 1 and gen 2.

 


Module 3

 https://www.c-sharpcorner.com/UploadFile/puranindia/C-Sharp-interview-questions/

 

 

 What is C#?

 

C# is a computer programming language. C# was developed by Microsoft in 2000 to provide a modern general-purpose programming language that can be used to develop all kinds of software targeting various platforms including Windows, Web, and Mobile using just one programming language

 

 What is Managed or Unmanaged Code? 

 

Managed Code

 

“Managed code is the code that is developed using the .NET framework and its supported programming languages such as C# or VB.NET. Managed code is directly executed by the Common Language Runtime (CLR or Runtime) and its lifecycle including object creation, memory allocation, and object disposal is managed by the Runtime. Any language that is written in .NET Framework is managed code".

 

Unmanaged Code

 

The code that is developed outside of the .NET framework is known as unmanaged code. 

 

 

 

What is the difference between a struct and a class in C#? 

 

Class and struct are both user-defined data types, but have some major differences:

 

Struct

  • The struct is a value type in C# and it inherits from System.Value Type.
  • Struct is usually used for smaller amounts of data.
  • Struct can’t be inherited from other types.
  • A structure can't be abstract.
  • No need to create an object with a new keyword.
  • Do not have permission to create any default constructor.

Class

  • The class is a reference type in C# and it inherits from the System.Object Type.
  • Classes are usually used for large amounts of data.
  • Classes can be inherited from other classes.
  • A class can be an abstract type.
  • We can create a default constructor.

 

What is the difference between Interface and Abstract Class in C#? 

 

Here are some of the common differences between an interface and an abstract class in C#.

  • A class can implement any number of interfaces but a subclass can at most use only one abstract class.
  • An abstract class can have non-abstract methods (concrete methods) while in case of interface, all the methods have to be abstract.
  • An abstract class can declare or use any variables while an interface is not allowed to do so.
  • In an abstract class, all data members or functions are private by default while in an interface all are public, we can’t change them manually.

 

 

 

 

 What is the difference between ref and out keywords?

 

The ref keyword passes arguments by reference. It means any changes made to this argument in the method will be reflected in that variable when control returns to the calling method.

 

The out keyword passes arguments by reference. This is very similar to the ref keyword.

 

What are Value types and Reference types in C#?

 

In C#, data types can be of two types, value types, and reference types. Value type variables contain their object (or data) directly. If we copy one value type variable to another then we are actually making a copy of the object for the second variable. Both of them will independently operate on their values, Value type data types are stored on a stack and reference data types are stored on a heap.

 

What is Serialization in C#?

 

Serialization in C# is the process of bringing an object into a form that it can be written on stream. It's the process of converting the object into a form so that it can be stored on a file, database, or memory; or, it can be transferred across the network. Its main purpose is to save the state of the object so that it can be recreated when needed.

 

serialization 

 

What is Deserialization in C#?

 

As the name suggests, deserialization in C# is the reverse process of serialization. It is the process of getting back the serialized object so that it can be loaded into memory. It resurrects the state of the object by setting properties, fields etc.

 

Module 4:

What is JavaScript?

JavaScript is a scripting language. It is different from Java language. It is object-based, lightweight, cross-platform translated language. It is widely used for client-side validation. The JavaScript Translator (embedded in the browser) is responsible for translating the JavaScript code for the web browser

 

What is AJAX?

AJAX stands for Asynchronous JavaScript and XML. It is a group of related technologies used to display data asynchronously. In other words, it sends and retrieves data without reloading the web page

 


Module 5:

Knockout JS Interview Questions

https://www.javatpoint.com/knockout-js-interview-questions

 

 

1) What is Knockout JS?

Knockout JS is a JavaScript library based on the MVVM (Model View View Model) pattern that helps developers building rich and responsive websites.

 

2) What are the most prominent features of Knockout JS?

  • Automatic UI Refresh
  • Two-way binding

 

3) Bind the Property on UI , we use Observable

4)Bind the Array on UI, we use  ObservableArray

 

 How can we activate a Knockout JS Model?

'ko.applyBindings() method is used to active the knockout js model

 

 Module 6:

 What is MVC (Model View Controller)?

Model–view–controller (MVC) is a software architectural pattern for implementing user interfaces. It divides a given software application into three interconnected parts, so as to separate internal representation of information from the way that information is presented to or accepted from the user.

 

 

Mention what is the difference between Temp data, View, and View Bag?

In ASP.NET MVC there are three ways to pass/store data between the controllers and views.

ViewData

  1. ViewData is used to pass data from controller to view.
  2. It is available for the current request only.
  3. Requires typecasting for complex data types and checks for null values to avoid an error.

 

 ViewBag

  1. ViewBag is also used to pass data from the controller to the respective view.
  2. ViewBag is a dynamic property that takes advantage of the new dynamic features in C# 4.0
  3. It is also available for the current request only.

TempData

  1. TempData is used to pass data from the current request to the next request

 

 

What is Partial View in MVC?

Partial view is a reusable view (like a user control) which can be embedded inside another view.

 

Types of filters

There are the following types of filters that can be implemented to inject custom processing logic.

  • Authorization filter
  • Action filter
  • Result filter
  • Exception filter

 

Routing

Routing is the URL pattern that is mapped together to a handler,routing is responsible for incoming browser request for particular MVC controller.


Module 7:

What is Web API and why we use it ?

Web API (Application Programming Interface), as the name suggests, is an API that can be accessed over the Web using the HTTP protocol. It is basically considered the best platform for revealing or uncovering data and services to various different services. It is a tool that can be used to push data to a server and can be accessed by server code. It can be built or developed using various technologies like java, ASP.NET, etc. 

 

 

Http Verbs:

 POST
GET
 PUT
DELETE

 

Two Types of Routing

1)      Conventional routing

2)       Attribute Routing

 

 

Difference between HTTP GET vs HTTP Post?

HTTP (HyperText Transfer Protocol) simply manages request-response between client and server. It works as a request-response protocol between client and server. 

HTTP GET: This method is used to get information or data from a respective server at a specified URL.

Example: 
GET/RegisterStudent.asp?user=value1&pass=value2

HTTP POST: This method is used to send data or information to respective servers. 

 


Module 8:

What is SQL?

 

Structured Query Language (SQL) is a programming language for accessing and manipulating Relational Database Management Systems (RDBMSs). SQL is widely used in popular RDBMSs such as SQL Server, Oracle, and MySQL. The smallest unit of execution in SQL is a query. A SQL query is used to select, update, and delete data.

 

What are the different types of joins in SQL Server?

Joins are useful for bringing data together from different tables based on their database relations.

  1. Full Join
  2. Inner Join
  3. Left outer Join
  4. Right outer Join
  5. Self Join

 

What is a constraint in SQL?

 

Constraints are the rules that decide what kind of data can enter into the database tables. 3

  1. Primary Key Constraint
  2. Foreign Key Constraint
  3. Not Null Constraint
  4. Unique constraint
  5. Default Constraint
  6. Check Constraint

 

Primary Key Constraint

 

A table column with this constraint is called the key column for the table. This constraint helps the table to make sure that the value is not repeated and also that there are no null entries. 

 

Foreign key

To define the relationship between two tables (one is called the parent and the other one is the child table) connected by columns, a foreign key constraint is used. In this constraint, the values of the child table must appear in the parent table, which means that for a foreign key, one table should point to a Primary Key in another table.

 

The UNIQUE constraint ensures that all values in a column are different.

Both the UNIQUE and PRIMARY KEY constraints provide a guarantee for uniqueness for a column or set of columns.

PRIMARY KEY constraint automatically has a UNIQUE constraint.

However, you can have many UNIQUE constraints per table, but only one PRIMARY KEY constraint per table.

 

 



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